Aug 31 / Iakovos Koukas

Main Components of Intelligence

There are four main components in human intelligence: verbal intelligence, numerical intelligence, logical intelligence, and spatial intelligence. Each of them represents a separate cognitive domain of intelligence, but with a single underlying factor that governs all of them: g factor (or general intelligence factor) of psychometrics.

Verbal Intelligence

Verbal-linguistic intelligence is the ability to analyze information, solve problems using language-based reasoning, use words and combinations effectively in communication, think in words, and use language to express and manipulate complex meanings. It is an individual’s ability to use written and verbal language to achieve their goals.

Numerical Intelligence

Numerical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to calculate, quantify, manipulate numerical symbols, and carry out numerical and mathematical operations. It is an individual’s ability to solve numerical/mathematical problems regularly and make decisions based on numerical information.

Logical Intelligence

Logical-abstract intelligence is the ability to consider propositions, use abstract and symbolic thought, sequential reasoning, inductive and deductive thinking patterns, and critical thinking. It is an individual’s ability to think logically, reason, analyze problems, identify solutions, use abstractions, recognize patterns, detect connections, and conduct scientific research.

Spatial Intelligence

Spatial-visual intelligence is the ability to think in three dimensions, solve spatial navigation problems, visualize objects from different angles and space, recognize faces or scenes, notice fine details, manipulate mental images, and do graphic and artistic work. It is an individual’s ability to recognize and manipulate visual and spatial patterns and orient their environment.